Motion Boutique LayerGenerators 1.2
An ideal mount permits the normal distortion of the entire active portion of the generator element, while at the same time preventing motion in certain directions at the mounting point or points. Generally, piezo generators are either bonded, clamped, or spring loaded to their mounting points. Mounts introduce some mechanical damping into the system since some of the energy from the generator distorts the mount itself. This may or may not be desirable.
Motion Boutique LayerGenerators 1.2
The low signal values of the charge coefficients for operation at 4.2K are reduced by a factor of 5-7 times. The value of the dielectric constant decreases and the value of the coercive field increases, however. In general, piezo sensors work quite well at cryogenic temperatures where they have been used to monitor magnetic flux motions in superconducting magnets bathed in liquid helium. Cycling the transducer between these temperature extremes does not affect them adversely.
Standard mounts for bending generators are illustrated in Figure 26 and fall into two general categories. The first category has power input at one end and is mounted at the other. Known as the cantilever mount, it provides maximum compliance. The second category, known as the simple beam mount, has power input at the center and is mounted at the ends. The simple beam mount allows the ends to move in and out as well as rotate but fixes their vertical position. Compared to the cantilever mount, the simple beam mount provides increased stiffness and frequency. For high frequency-resonant applications, power dissipation at the mounts can be minimized by using nodal mounts. The nodes are evenly spaced, .55L apart, where L is the length of the beam. Ridgid clamping at both ends is often considered by novice designers for expedience (e.g. by bonding to the edges of a cutout or clamping as illustrated in Figure 26). In theory if the end clamps are perfectly rigid the motion at the center of the beam will be exactly zero. In practice no material is perfectly rigid, so typically the designers are left to puzzle out why the actuator is only making 1/10 the expected excursion.
Polyline constructs a rigged 3D polyline from the motion path of a layer.Polyline creates a straight segment between each pair of consecutive keyframes.Segments are precomp layers controlled by expressions (position, scale and orientation).They are connected to each other using a corner pin effect and powerful expressions.Polyline also creates null layers at each corner of the path, so you can dynamically modify the polyline by moving the nulls in 3D space. As each segment is a slice of a path precomp, you can easily change the appearence of the polyline by modifying each segment individually or the whole path at once.
Liquefaction of vapor is a necessary, but energy intensive step in several important process industries. This review identifies possible materials and surface structures for promoting dropwise condensation, known to increase efficiency of condensation heat transfer. Research on superhydrophobic and superomniphobic surfaces promoting dropwise condensation constitutes the basis of the review. In extension of this, knowledge is extrapolated to condensation of CO2. Global emissions of CO2 need to be minimized in order to reduce global warming, and liquefaction of CO2 is a necessary step in some carbon capture, transport and storage (CCS) technologies. The review is divided into three main parts: 1) An overview of recent research on superhydrophobicity and promotion of dropwise condensation of water, 2) An overview of recent research on superomniphobicity and dropwise condensation of low surface tension substances, and 3) Suggested materials and surface structures for dropwise CO2 condensation based on the two first parts.
The nanofluids or nanoparticles (NPs) transport in confined channel is of great importance for many biological and industrial processes. In this study, molecular dynamics simulation has been employed to investigate spontaneous two-phase displacement process in ultra-confined capillary controlled by surface wettability of NPs. The results clearly show that the presence of NPs modulates the fluid-fluid meniscus and hinders displacement process compared with NP-free case. From the perspective of motion behavior, hydrophilic NPs disperse in water phase or adsorb on the capillary, while hydrophobic and mixed-wet NPs are mainly distributed in the fluid phase. The NPs dispersed into fluids tend to increase the viscosity of fluids, while the adsorbed NPs contribute to wettability alteration of solid capillary. Via capillary number calculation, it is uncovered that the viscosity increase of fluids is responsible for hindered spontaneous displacement process by hydrophobic and mixed NPs. Wettability alteration of capillary induced by adsorbed NPs is dominating the enhanced displacement in the case of hydrophilic NPs. Our findings provide the guidance to modify the rate of capillary filling and reveal microscopic mechanism of transporting NPs into porous media, which is significant to the design of NPs for target applications.
Wind is a new tool for After Effects that simulates the natural motion of a breeze blowing layers across the screen. Wind is not a particle system or a physics engine. When you click apply, it creates a series of null-based rigs that control each active layer in your comp. Wind uses a unique algorithm to mimic a variety of turbulence effects in native AE 3D space.
Every animator knows that secondary motion is really the key to add these extra level of life to their character animations.Indeed, several of the famous principles of animation ("Overlapping", "Follow through", "Secondary action" and "Squash & Stretch"), are still learned and used by almost any animator since decades.But, in fact, these same principles can apply to the motion design field as well, it's even strongly recommended to use them if you want your animated layers to convey an idea of life ! But creating this kind of secondary motion from scratch within After Effects can be really time consuming and tedious.
The Custom effect is the most advanced tool : it will allow you to create this nice springy motion on any numeric single dimension property (multiple dimensions properties like position, special types of values like dropdown lists, color can't be handled by the tool) as soon as your selected property belongs to an effect (transform, masks, geometry and other group's properties won't work neither), based on the keyframed motion on the layer of your choice (you'll have to choose on which axis you want your custom effect to be based on).The Custom effect can even be used to create unseen secondary motion on a plugin effect's property such as Element 3D or Joystick' n ' sliders.The possibilities are endless !
In addition to this first effect, each deformer or constraint applied to the selected layer will have its own "Max" slider controls, for each axis, on the corresponding "Spring Constraint CTRL" layer as well.So, for example, if you apply a Bend deformer on a layer called "Red Solid 1" that moves on its position, you'll find a "Bend X Max" and a "Bend Y Max" on the corresponding CTRL layer (in our case, it would be called "Red Solid 1 - Spring Constraint CTRL"), that will allow you to tweak the bend intensity for both X and Y axis independently.And if you want to add another springy effect on top of that, let say a Twist deformer based on your layer's animated rotation, simply select the layer ("Red Solid 1" in our case) and click on the Twist button. A "Twist" effect will be added to the layer, and a new "Twist Max" angle control will be stacked below the bend controls on the same "Red Solid 1 - Spring Constraint CTRL" layer.Note that the Liquid deformer is a bit different from the other tools, since it can react to the motion from both the position and the rotation ;Moreover you can select a second layer in addition to the first one. The first selected layer will then receive a bunch of distort effects to make it behave like some liquid (TIP : you can press the SHIFT key while clicking on the Liquid effect button, and you'll end up with a nice bubbling effect onto your layer !). Your second selected layer will be your container. It will be automatically duplicated and arranged so that one of them becomes an alpha matte for the liquid... Which is really handy to fill up a wide variety of containers like bottles, glass, cans, barrels... Just animate the liquid layer and see the magic happen !
One of the deformers is called Jiggle. (initially designed to reproduce the same named deformer's effect from Cinema 4D). It aims at making your puppet pins, created with the AE's Puppet tool, automatically jiggle when the layer moves on its position. As you may notice, it has exactly the same purpose than another well known (and cool) tool called Rubberize it !This is true, BUT, both tools work differently. First of all, they use a completely different algorithm (Rubberize it has 2 formulas that are based on the anchor point and none active pins, while Springy FX's Jiggle tool doesn't use the anchor point at all). Rubberized it tends to create much more natural and realistic motion, but the expressions that are created are just a nightmare to dive in and aren't customizable at all, while the expressions created on the Springy FX's Jiggling pins are all linked to some useful slider, to help you tweak the jiggling strength for each pin independently. Another cool thing with the Jiggle deformer is the ability to disable the jiggling effect during time thanks to a "Activate Jiggle deformer" checkbox. Last but not least... You can choose to make your pins jiggle depending of another layer's motion, which allow you to achieve really complex simulations !